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Kim, S. J., & Jo, U. (2013). Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. NeuroRehabilitation, 32(1), 85-190.


Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /Kə/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

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Kim, S. J., Kwak, E. E., Park, E. S., & Cho. S. R. (2012). Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(10), 904-914.

To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy.

A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups.

Human gait analysis laboratory.

Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15).

Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual’s cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method.

Main measures:
Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed.

Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P < 0.05). Kinematic data demonstrated that anterior tilt of the pelvis and hip flexion during a gait cycle was significantly ameliorated after rhythmic auditory stimulation (P < 0.05). Gait deviation index also showed modest improvement in cerebral palsy patients treated with rhythmic auditory stimulation (P < 0.05). However, neurodevelopmental treatment showed that internal and external rotations of hip joints were significantly improved, whereas rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P < 0.05).

Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.