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Chong, H. J., Kim, S. J., & Yoo, G. E. (2015). Differential effects of type of keyboard playing task and tempo on surface EMG amplitudes of forearm muscles. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1277. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01277

Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined, whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi. This helps to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing tasks when being used as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills.

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한수정, 권애지, 박혜영 (2014). 패턴화된 감각 증진(PSE)이 뇌졸중 환자의 상지 기능에 미치는 즉각적 영향. 인간행동과 음악연구, 11(1), 1-19.

본 연구는 패턴화된 감각 증진(Patterned Sensory Enhancement, PSE) 기법이 뇌졸중 환자의 상지 기능에 미치는 즉각적인 효과를 알아보기 위해 PSE와 단순 리듬 자극 간의 차이를 비교분 석 하였다. 연구 대상은 서울시와 수원시 소재의 재활병원에서 입원 치료 중인 뇌졸중 편마비 환 자 16명이며 실험군과 대조군으로 각각 8명씩 배치하였다. 본 연구의 종속변인은 뇌졸중 환자의 환측 상지 기능으로 6가지 동작의 관절가동범위(ROM, range of motion)와 장악력이며 실험군에 게는 PSE를, 대조군에게는 메트로놈으로 제공되는 단순 리듬 자극을 제공하였다. 실험은 음악 자 극이 없을 때와 있을 때의 같은 상지 기능을 측정하는 순서로 진행되었으며 측정한 값의 경향을 정확하게 파악하기 위해 동일한 실험을 총 2회 실시하여 평균값을 도출하였다. 연구 진행 결과, PSE를 제공받은 실험군은 음악을 들으며 동작을 수행할 때 상지 관절가동범위가 유의미하게 향 상되는 즉각적인 효과를 보였으나(p < .05), 대조군은 즉각적인 효과를 보이지 않았다. 이는 단순 리듬 자극보다 PSE가 상지 운동 향상에 더 적절하게 적용될 수 있다는 것과 음악의 청각적 패턴 이 운동 범위의 확장 즉, 운동 향상에 영향을 줄 수 있다는 것을 보여주었다. 본 연구는 PSE가 상지 운동 기능에 미치는 즉각적인 영향을 단순 리듬 자극과 비교분석하였다는 점에서 의의가 있으며 음악 요소의 특징이 유도하고자 하는 신체 운동의 목표와 밀접한 연관성을 가질 때 효과 적으로 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 시사한다.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of Patterned Sensory Enhancement (PSE) technique on the motor function of the affected upper limb in hemiplegic stroke patients by comparing the use of PSE and simple rhythmic cue. A total of 16 stroke patients were recruited from rehabilitative hospitals. The participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 8) and control group (n = 8). While performing six different upper limb motions, musical stimuli applying the PSE technique was presented for the experimental group and simple rhythmic cue using the metronome was applied for the control group. The results showed that while the significantly increased range of motion (ROM) was found in the experimental group with the immediate use of PSE (p < .05), the control group did not show no significant change. This study implies that the use of musical elements in cueing for upper limb motion immediately leads to significant improvement in ROM by providing sufficient temporal, spatial, and dynamic information for expected motor performance.

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Chong, H. J., Han, S. J., Kim, Y. J., Park, H. Y., & Kim, S. J. (2014). Relationship between output from MIDI-keyboard playing and hand function assessments on affected hand after stroke. NeuroRehabilitation, 35(4), 673-680.

Abstract

Background:While a number of studies have tested the therapeutic effectiveness of playing musical instruments, such as the electronic keyboard using Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), it is still unclear whether outcomes of electronic keyboard playing are related to hand function tests. Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between MIDI-keyboard playing and hand function tests, including grip strength, Box and Block test (BBT), and Jensen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHF). Methods:A total of 66 stroke patients were recruited from medical centers and were classified into acute (n = 21), subacute (n = 28), and chronic (n = 17) recovery stages. The participants’ mean age was 60.5 years. The MIDI-keyboard playing protocol based on sequential key pressing was implemented. All hand function tests were performed by certified occupational therapists. Results:MIDI scores from participants at all three recovery stages were significantly correlated with BBT and grip strength. Overall, MIDI-keyboard playing scores demonstrated moderate to high correlations with hand function tests except for participants at the chronic stage and the JTHF, which showed no correlation. Conclusions:These findings suggest that MIDI-keyboard playing has great potential as an assessment tool of hand function, especially hand dexterity in acute and subacute stroke patients. Further studies are needed to refine the specific keyboard playing tasks that increase responsiveness to traditional hand function tests.

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Suh, J. H., Han, S. J., Jeon, S. Y., Kim, H. J., Lee, J. E., Yoon. T. S., & Chong, H. J. (2014). Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait and balance in hemiplegic stroke patients. NeuroRehabilitation, 34(1), 193-199.

Abstract

Background:Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) improves gait velocity, cadence, and stride length in hemiplegic stroke patients, yet little is known about the effectiveness of RAS on standing balance. Objectives:To examine and compare the effectiveness on standing balance and gait parameter of two different types of gait trainings, gait training with RAS versus gait training without RAS, was compared in two groups of hemiplegic stroke patients over a three-week period (RAS group, n = 8; control group = 8). Methods:Sixteen hemiplegic stroke patients were included in the study. Standing balance was measured by using Biosway®. Stride length, gait velocity, and cadence were calculated from the number of steps and required time for a 10 m-walk. Results:Pre- to post-test measures showed a significant improvement in RAS group for overall stability index (p = 0.043), mediolateral index (p = 0.006), anteroposterior index (p = 0.016), gait velocity (p = 0.012), stride length (p = 0.03) and cadence (p = 0.012) over the control group. Conclusions:The results of this study showed that RAS was an effective therapeutic method to improve gait velocity, stride length, cadence, and standing balance in hemiplegic stroke patients.

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Chong, H. J., Cho, S. R., & Kim, S. J. (2014). Hand rehabilitation using MIDI keyboard playing in adolescents with brain damage: A preliminary study. NeuroRehabilitation, 34(1), 147-155.

Abstract

Background:As a sequential, programmed movement of fingers, keyboard playing is a promising technique for inducing execution and a high level of coordination during finger movements. Also, keyboard playing can be physically and emotionally rewarding for adolescents in rehabilitation settings and thereby motivate continued involvement in treatment. Objective:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of keyboard playing using Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) on finger movement for adolescents with brain damage. Methods:Eight adolescents with brain damage, ages 9 to 18 years (M = 13 years, SD = 2.78), in physical rehabilitation settings participated in this study. Measurements included MIDI keyboard playing for pressing force of the fingers and hand function tests (Grip and Pinch Power Test, Box and Block Test of Manual Dexterity [BBT], and the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test). Results:Results showed increased velocity of all fingers on the MIDI-based test, and statistical significance was found in the velocity of F2 (index finger), F3 (middle finger), and F5 (little finger) between pre- and post-training tests. Correlation analysis between the pressing force of the finger and hand function tests showed a strong positive correlation between the measure of grip power and the pressing force of F2 and F5 on the Grip and Pinch Strength Test. All fingers showed strong correlation between MIDI results and BBT. For the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test, only the moving light objects task at post-training yielded strong correlation with MIDI results of all fingers. Conclusions:The results support using keyboard playing for hand rehabilitation, especially in the pressing force of individual finger sequential movements. Further investigation is needed to define the feasibility of the MIDI program for valid hand rehabilitation for people with brain damage.

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Chong, H. J., Yoo, G. E., & Kim, S. J. (2013). Affective responses to complexity in harmonic progression between music and nonmusic majors. Journal of Music Therapy, 21(2), 128-154.

The purpose of this study was to examine listeners’ responses to different levels of complexity in harmonic progression in music. A total of 77 college students, 37 music and 40 nonmusic majors, participated in this study. The musical stimuli were composed in five different levels of harmonic progression sequentially for this study. After listening to each musical stimuli, participants rated their responses on the 11-point semantic differential scales that examined the dimensions of activity, evaluation, and potency of emotion. The results showed that regarding the activity variable, the music major group perceived increased emotional activity with increased complexity, and the nonmusic major group showed a similar trend but to a lesser degree. Both groups showed a decreased response in evaluation with increased complexity in harmonic progression. Music majors rated music with higher complexity more positively than did nonmusic majors. Also, in terms of potency, both groups perceived more power in the music with increased complexity of harmonic progression, but this was considerably more pronounced in the music major group. Based on the results, one can conclude that there is a similar trait in the responses of listeners in both groups; however, the music major group showed a greater degree of response than that of the nonmusic major group as the complexity in harmonic progression increased. This suggests that music training and music experiences may prime listeners to more readily perceive increased energy, power, depth, and sensitivity of emotion with increased harmonic complexity.

본 연구는 음악의 화음 전개 복잡성에 따라 감상자의 정서적 반응이 활동성(activity), 평가(evaluation)와 힘(potency)의 차원에서 어떻게 달라지는지 보고자 하였다. 특히 음악 전공 집단과 비음악 전공 집단의 반응 차이에 초점을 맞추어, 음악 경험 및 교육이 화음의 복잡성에 따른 정서적 지각에 영향을 미치는지 살펴보고자 하였다. 서울 소재 대학교의 재학생 77명을 대상으로 실험이 실시되었고, 음악 전공 집단과 비음악 전공 집단이 각각 37명, 40명씩으로 구성되었다. 본 연구를 위해 5개의 화음 전개 난이도에 맞추어 16마디로 이루어진 곡이 작곡되었다. 대상자들은 임의적 순서로 제시되는 5개의 곡을 듣고 음악으로 인해 지각되는 정서의 각성 정도, 긍정/부정적 평가 정도 및 정서의 강도를 각각의 의미변별 척도(semantic differential scale)에 표시하였다. 대상자들의 반응을 분석한 결과 (1) 정서의 활동성과 관련해, 음악 전공 집단은 화음의 복잡성이 증가함에 따라 보다 각성된 정서를 지각한 반면, 비음악 전공 집단은 화음 전개 난이도 변화에 따른 반응 차이가 미미한 것으로 나타났다. (2) 정서의 평가 차원에서는 두 집단 모두 복잡한 난이도의 음악이 제시될수록 그 음악을 부정적으로 지각하는 것으로 나타났다. 집단 간 차이에 있어서는 음악 전공 집단이 비음악 전공 집단에 비해 제시된 음악을 긍정적으로 지각하는 경향을 보였다. (3) 마지막으로 힘의 차원에 있어서는 음악 전공 집단은 난이도가 가장 높은 음악에 대해서만 정서의 강도를 양의 값으로 평가한 반면, 비음악 전공 집단은 중간 난이도의 음악에서부터 그 강도 증가가 현저하게 나타났다. 이러한 결과들은 음악 전공 집단과 비음악 전공 집단의 음악에 대한 정서적 반응에 있어 전반적으로는 유사한 경향을 보이지만, 그 반응 정도와 수준에 있어서는 서로 다름을 보여준다. 이는 과거 음악 교육이 음악 자극 혹은 음악 요소의 차이를 지각하는 민감성이나 자극의 수용도에 영향을 미치는 것으로 보인다. 본 연구 결과들은 정서적 각성 혹은 정서적 변화를 기대하는 음악 선택과 사용 시 음악 경험과 교육의 정도에 따라 음악적 정보를 어떻게 조절해야 하는지에 대한 기초적인 준거 자료를 제시할 수 있을 것이다.

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한인희, 김수지 (2013). 일반성인의 키보드 연주 손가락 타력 MIDI 표준치 연구. 인간행동과 음악연구, 10(2), 79-97.

본 연구는 MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) 프로그램을 연결한 키보드 연주 시 일반 인의 각 손가락 타력 표준치를 측정하고자 실시되었다. 연구 대상은 서울과 충청 지역 대학에 재 학 중인 학생 총 92명(남성 46명, 여성 46명)으로 평균 연령은 만 18세부터 28세였다(평균나이: 21.7, 표준편차: 1.8). 연구 대상자의 음악교육경험 및 기간에 관한 조사를 선행한 후, 연구대상 자의 각 손가락을 이용하여 키보드 건반을 상행 및 하행으로 타건하도록 하였다. 개인별 타건의 MIDI값을 분석해 본 결과 최대 강도 127 중 77∼97의 수치를 기록하였다. 남성의 경우 최대값은 우세손 손가락의 검지에서 96.9를 기록했고, 최저값은 비우세손 약지에서 78.5 나타났다. 여성은 우세손 중지의 타력값이 92로 가장 높았으며 최저값은 남성과 유사하게 비우세손 약지에서 77.5 로 나타났다. 참여자들의 우세손과 비우세손 손가락 타력의 차이는 엄지를 제외한 모든 손가락에 서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이를 보였으나(p < .05) 성별과 악기 연주 경험에서는 유의미한 차이 가 나타나지 않았다(p < .05). 본 연구에서 측정된 손가락 타력의 표준치는 건반악기와 MIDI프로 그램의 사용이 손기능을 평가하는 도구로 활용될 수 있으며, 손기능 중재 방안의 효과성 입증을 위한 근거 자료로 활용 될 수 있음을 시사한다.

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Duerksen, G., & Chong, H. J. (2013). 인지 및 정서행동 영역에서의 음악치료 사정을 위한 리듬 프로토콜(MACED-Rhythm) 개발 예비 연구. 인간 행동과 음악연구, 10(1), 67-83.

Abstract


Assessment in music therapy is a vital part for both the therapist and client in the process of therapy. Based on what is assessed, objectives are identified to formulate specific action procedures and strategies. The existing assessment tools involve lists of skills and behaviors in developmental domains without the music assessment protocol. In this study, the authors attempted to develop an assessment protocol using rhythm production for assessing skills in cognitive and emotional-behavior domain, namely Music Therapy Assessment for Cognitive and Emotional Behaviors (MACEB). The test items of the MACEB-Rhythm were developed using rhythmic patterns varying in terms of item difficulty, which are based on the various degree of clarity in the grouping/gestalt, saliency in part-whole relationship, and complexity in repetition vs. variability. Also the developed tool purported to examine one’s level of emotional behavior trait by analyzing performance of musical parameters such as tempo, pacing, and loudness in the reproduced output. In order to verify the logical sequencing of test items, firstly 61 subjects participated in verifying the item difficulty for the selected 15 pilot items. The test items were revised and re-sequenced based on the gathered scores of item difficulty. In the second procedure, seven experts in the fields of music education, music therapy and music psychology whose research interest lie in music cognition revised the developed rhythm protocol items focusing on learning sequence, cognitive process and feasibility for skills assessment. The study attempted to provide foundations for using rhythm as an assessment protocol prior to its verification of assessment validity and reliability.

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Chong, H. J., Jeong, E., & Kim, S. J. (2013). Listeners’ perception of intended emotions in music. International Journal of Contents, 9(4), 78-85.

ABSTRACT

Music functions as a catalyst for various emotional experiences. Among the numerous genres of music, film music has been reported to induce strong emotional responses. However, the effectiveness of film music in evoking different types of emotions and its relationship in terms of which musical elements contribute to listeners’ perception of intended emotion have been rarely investigated.
The purpose of this study was to examine the congruence between the intended emotion and the perceived emotion of listeners in film music listening and to identify musical characteristics of film music that correspond with specific types of emotion. Additionally, the study aimed to investigate possible relationships between participants’ identification responses and personal musical experience. A total of 147 college students listened to twelve 15-second music excerpts and identified the perceived emotion during music listening.
The results showed a high degree of congruence between the intended emotion in film music and the participants’ perceived emotion.
Existence of tonality and modality were found to play an important role in listeners’ perception of intended emotion. The findings suggest that identification of perceived emotion in film music excerpts was congruent regardless of individual differences. Specific music components that led to high congruence are further discussed.

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Chong, H. J., Cho, S. R., Jeong, E., & Kim, S. J. (2013). Finger exercise with keyboard playing in adults with cerebral palsy: A preliminary study. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 9(4), 420-425.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Therapeutic Instrument Music Performance (TIMP) for fine motor exercises in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Individuals with CP (n = 5) received a total of twelve, 30-min TIMP sessions, two days per week for six to nine weeks. Pre- and post-Music Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) data were used as a measure of hand function. Pre-velocity was significantly different from the normative data obtained from typical adults (n = 20); however, post-velocity did not yield significance, specifically in the second and fifth fingers, indicating improvement in hand function for the adults with cerebral palsy. The finding implies that TIMP using keyboard playing may effectively improve manual dexterity and velocity of finger movement. Based on these results, future program development of instrumental playing for adults with CP is called for to enhance both their independent living skills and quality of life.

Keywords: Hand, Rehabilitation, Music therapy, Cerebral palsy